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Psychology Books The science of human behaviour. "Psychology" is derived from the Greek psyche, for "breath," "spirit," or "soul." Psychotherapy is therefore the nurturing of the spirit or soul. Psychology did not emerge from philosophy as a separate, experimental science until the late nineteenth century. The classical psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud became established around the turn of the twentieth century. Carl G. Jung, who broke away from Freud, was the first Western psychiatrist to see the importance of transpersonal experience in mental health. At about the middle of the twentieth century, there was growing evidence that psychology needed to address behaviour associated with health and well-being rather than only pathology, and that psychology hand underestimated the human potential for psychological growth and well-being. A major breakthrough developed to make psychology "the study of man" by regarding the human being as a whole organism and not a synthesis of parts. This shift brought together science, medicine, the humanities, and religion.